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Comparing the revolutions of Russia and China 2016-09-12 오전 12:32:00

As a side effect of the world wars, the growing idea of nationalism and communism, served as an introduction for the revolutions that occurred in Russia and China. Within Russia, anger at the imperial family led the peasants to act out of extreme nationalism and self-pride overthrowing the monarchy and sparking the civil war. The civil war further pushed the nation into debt which led to the experiment of large scale and long lasting communism.  Meanwhile in China, which was now absent from the world affairs, practicing isolationist policies, the decline of the Qing dynasty allowed differing political ideas to emerge. However, the differing opinions and goals of the parties soon unraveled creating an unstable government which eventually solidified in communism. Although the revolutionary process in China and Russia had different main goals, the uprising of leaders and their responses as well as the eventual outcomes are similar.
The Russian and Chinese Revolution began with different goals in mind. The Russian revolution was sparked by the escalating of the anger of the common people, their anger directed to the out of touch imperial family and the injustices from WWI. The further lack of empathy from the imperial house and the continued employment of the very unpopular Rasputin led to more tension between the monarchs and the peasants. The anger and dissatisfaction towards the monarchy caused the peasants to yearn for a nation that had lesser social distinctions and this led to the creation of the communist party. The prediction of Karl Marx, in which the uproar of the common man overthrew the elite, was enacted on a small scale during the Russian revolution. While successful in Russia, China did not have the same equality based goal, focusing on the need for westernization and industrialization.  As shown by the four modernizations by Zhou Enlai, which focused on strengthening the fields of agriculture, industry, national dense and technology ,and Mao’s westernization plans ,that included women’s participation in production, the Chinese revolution aimed for modernization than simply overthrowing the government. Although the goals of the revolution were different, both the Chinese and Russian revolution successfully established communism in their countries.
           Both the revolutions were supported by charismatic leaders organizing the peasant class and the successes as well as the failures of the policies inducted by Stalin and Mao were similar. Both Stalin’s 5year plan and Mao’s first five year plan, focused on developing their economy and were very successful. Stalin, who aimed on setting Russia as a major world power, focused on industrializing Russia, improving education and transportation and investing on factories, served as a milestone for Stalin’s success. Setting the Russian 5 year plan as a model, Mao reformed the mining industries, re-energizing the mining efforts of steel, coal and iron. Both the 5 year plans improved the quality of life and satisfied a huge number of people. However in long term affects, Mao’s and Stalin’s policy wasn’t successful. Both Stalin and Mao ignored the freedom of the people, enforced secret polices, sacrificed several lives due to their failures  as shown by Stalin’s great purge and Mao’s great leap forward. Although both the leaders tried to improve their country, their policies resulted in several deaths of the people.
           Furthermore, the outcomes of the revolutions ended in the success of the communist movements. Although both of the revolutions started with a meaningful cause, at the end, both of the countries were controlled by a single figure and was ruled by totalitarianism. The meaning of communism was getting disintegrated as the newly born communist country was now controlled by a dictator. The purpose of the revolutions was to relinquish the monarchs such as the Russian Czar and Chinese Emperor, was now replaced by Stalin and Mao respectively. The Russian Revolution left the country war weary and economically depleted. This was perfect grounds for Lenin to come in with economic relief plans and plans to help the poor. The Russian people were floundering and the idea of equality was appealing for the Russian people. This can be seen in a direct parallel to China, Mao offering the peasants a fair and equal society that championed the peasant class. Due to the foreign invasions, China had a three way fight which provided enough controversy for Mao to declare China a communist state in 1949. The end of both revolutions resulted in a communist regime in both Russia and China on the basis of fairness and equality for the oppressed peasant class.
           The similar outcomes of the Russian and Chinese Revolutions, a dictatorship, can be attributed to the similar process of the revolution. The leaders charismatically convinced the peasant people to follow them, alluring them with promises of a better life. This promise allowed the people to be subdued into a communist state. The original different goals found the in the Russian and Chinese Revolutions were nowhere to be found after the end result of a communist dictatorship, economically safer but in a less politically free position then they were before.

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